alexa Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in St. Marry Hospital, Axum, Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2329-891X
Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in St. Marry Hospital, Axum, Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study

Daniel Getacher Feleke1*, Shambel Tarko2, Dr. Haftom Hadush1, Daniel Gebretsadik4, Yosef Zenebe3 and Awol Seid2

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences and Referral Hospital, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia

2School of Nursing, College of Health Sciences and Referral Hospital, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia

3Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences and Referral Hospital, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia

4Departmentof Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author:
Feleke DG
Department of Biomedical Sciences
College of Health Sciences and Referral Hospital
Aksum University, Ethiopia
Tel: +251946747551
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 02, 2017; Accepted Date: April 18, 2017; Published Date: April 31, 2017

Citation: Feleke DG, Tarko S, Hadush H, Gebretsadik D, Zenebe Y, et al. (2017) Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in St. Marry Hospital, Axum, Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study. J Trop Dis 5: 235. doi:10.4172/2329-891X.1000235

Copyright: © 2017 Feleke DG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health

Abstract

Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are an important public health problem in developing countries. The aim of this study is to get information about the presence and prevalence of intestinal parasites. Methods: A hospital based retrospective study was carried out for the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Axum Saint Marry hospital, Tigray from September 2013 to August 2015. In the study hospital standard operating procedures (SOPs) is used in every procedures of stool sample examination. Stool samples were examined by experienced laboratory technologists within 2 hours of collection using direct wet mount and formal-Ether concentration techniques. Results: Of the examined 21,611 stool samples 7,663 (35.5%) were positive for intestinal parasites. The dominant parasites detected were Entameoba histolytica 3,892 (50.8%) followed by Gardia lamblia 2,507 (32.7%), Hookworm 499 (6.5%) and Schistosma mansoni 296 (3.9%). Other helminthes were also isolated and recorded in the laboratory registration book. Conclusion: This retrospective study showed a variable prevalence of intestinal parasites from year to year but with no significant reduction. Health education and practical measures on personal and environmental sanitation such as proper waste disposal are important to reduce intestinal parasitic infection in the study area.

Keywords

Intestinal parasites; Protozoan parasites; Helminthes; Prevalence; Axum

Introduction

Intestinal parasitic infections are still an important public health problem [1]. Globally two billion individuals were infected with intestinal parasites; of these majorities were children in resourcelimited areas [2,3]. World Health Organization estimated 800-1000 million cases of Ascariasis, 700-900 million of Hookworm infection, 500 millions of Trichuriasis, 200 million of Giardiasis and 500 million of Entamoeba histolytica worldwide [4]. In sub-Saharan African countries, up to 250 million people are infected with at least one intestinal nematodes [5]. The transmission mode of intestinal parasites are consumption of contaminated food and water, skin penetration and through feco-oral contact from person to person [6,7]. Socioeconomic conditions, education, sanitation practices and presence of domestic animals in the home are some of the factors which determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite [8,9]. In Ethiopia intestinal parasites are widely distributed largely due to lack of environmental and personal sanitation, contamination of food and drinking water resulted from open defecation around the settlement and lack of awareness of simple health promotion practices [5,10-12]. As far as we know no study was conducted on the prevalence of intestinal parasite in Axum St. Marry Hospital, Tigray. Therefore, this study aimed to get the real information about the presence of different species of intestinal parasites and their magnitude with time in Axum, Tigray by referring St. Marry hospital parasitology laboratory records.

Materials and Methods

Study area and period

This hospital based retrospective study was implemented in Axum St. Marry hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. Axum is ancient town with a population of 56,500 residents (as of July 2012). Agriculture, government employee and small scale trading are means by which the local people earn their living. Axum is the original capital of the kingdom of Axum; it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in Africa. It has an elevation of 2,131 meters. Aksum University is located in the town. It has only one public general hospital and one health center. There are some private medium clinics but no private hospital. Axum St. marry hospital is a well known public hospital in 50 km radius from the center of the city. The availability of human and material resource, the good service it provides and fair price made this hospital preferable not only by the residence of the town but also the rural people from the surrounding areas. As a result, this hospital has very high patient load.

Data collection tools and procedures

Data were collected using a pre-designed data collection sheet. In Axum hospital pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical quality control for stool examination was performed by strictly following the SOP. In this hospital, all specimens were collected using clean, wide mouthed stool sample container and examined by experienced laboratory technologists within 2 hours of collection. Macroscopic stool examination for the presence of whole or part of adult parasite and microscopic examination for the detection of parasite egg, cyst and trophozoite were performed. Saline wet mount was prepared and examined for microscopic detection of trophozoites of protozoa and helminthes egg and larva. Protozoan cysts were detected using iodine wet mount. Formal-Ether concentration technique was performed for patients who have strong suggestive clinical manifestations but no parasites detected in wet mount examination. Scotch tape technique for the diagnosis of E.verimicularis was not performed.

Stool specimens from the out patients and inpatients during the study period were included in the analysis irrespective of patient’s disease status. Stool specimen provided by admitted patients for follow-up purpose and incomplete records were excluded from the analysis. In the laboratory record book there were patients provided more than one stool sample either for follow up purpose or for diagnosing parasites passed intermittently in stool. In this case if the entire submitted samples were negative, only one of the samples was counted; if one of the provided sample positive, it was included. Admitted patients provided more than one samples for follow-up purpose, the subsequent samples were excluded.

Data analysis

In this study only consistently recorded demographic information were used in the data analysis. Data was first entered in to the Excel and imported to the SPSS version 20 software package and analyzed. Crosstab was used for frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables. Data was presented with appropriate figures and tables.

Results

A total of 21,611 stool samples were examined from September 2013-August 2015. Of the examined stool samples 7,663 (35.46%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Parasite positivity was slightly higher in females (36.49%) than in males (34.69%) (Table 1). More than 92.8% of the positive cases fall under the age group of ≥ 15 years.

  Category
 Age  Sex
<5  5-14 ≥15 Male Female
 Total samples examined 3,797 3,845 13,969 12,431 9,180
 Positive cases 195 357 7,111 4313 3,350
 Percentage (%) 5.13 9.28 50.91  34.69 36.49

Table 1: Distribution of positive cases by age and gender (n=7,663), Axum St. Marry Hospital, Tigray from 2013-2015.

The dominant parasites detected were Entameoba histolytica 3892 (50.79%) followed by Gardia lamblia 2507 (32.7%), Hookworm 499 (6.5%), Schistosma mansoni 296 (3.9%), Hymenolepiasis nana 270 (3.5%). The least common intestinal parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia species. The prevalence of specific species of parasites in different age group was analyzed.

Hymenolepiasis nana, Trichuris tricuria and Enterobius vermicularis were more prevalent in less than five years old children while Entameoba histolytica was the most common intestinal parasites in age grope ≥ 15 (Table 2).

  Parasites species
Eh Gl Hw Sm Hn Ev Ss Tt Al Taeniaspps Total
Total number of positive cases percentage (%) 3,892
(50.8)
2,507
(32.7)
499
(6.5)
296
(3.9)
270
(3.5)
66
(0.9)
47
(0.6)
37
(0.5)
31
(0.4)
18
(0.2)
7,663
(100)
Age categories <5 78
(40.0)
63
(32.3)
0
(0.0)
0
(0.0)
24
(12.3)
11
(5.6)
6
(3.1)
8
(4.1)
5
(2.6)
0
(0.0)
195
(2.5)
5-14 112
(31.4)
92
(25.8)
35
(9.8)
8
(2.2)
42
(11.8)
20
(5.6)
12
(3.4)
14
(3.9)
18
(5.0)
4
(1.1)
357
(4.7)
>15 3,702 (52.1) 2,352
(33.1)
464
(6.5)
288
(4.1)
204
(2.9)
35
(0.5)
29
(0.4)
15
(0.2)
8
(0.1)
14
(0.2)
71
11(92.8)
Keys: Gl= Giardia lambila; Eh= Entameobahistolytica; Hw= Hookworm; Sm= Schistosomamansoni Hn= Hymenolepis nana; Al= Ascarislumbricoids; Ss= Strongyloidessterocoralis, Tt= Tricuristricuria, Ev= Entrobiousverimicularis;                    

Table 2: The distribution pattern of different intestinal parasites in different age categories in Axum St. Marry Hospital, Tigray from 2013-2015.

Hookworm was the most commonly detected helminth parasite with 296 (3.86%) followed by S.mansoni and H.nana with 270 (3.52%) and 66 (0.86%) respectively (Figure 1).

tropical-diseases-chemical-structure-hospital

Figure 1: Intestinal helminthes distribution in Axum Saint Marry hospital, Tigray from 2013-2015.

Although there were differences in the number of total stool samples examined and positive cases year to year, there was no any significant association between positive cases and year.

The most common intestinal parasites were E. histolytica (49.37-52.10%), G. lamblia (30.25-35.86%), Hookworm (5.84-7.90%) and S. mansoni (3.58-4.35%). The rest parasite detected were H.nana, E.verimicularis, T.trichuria, A.lumbricoids and Taenia spps (Table 3).

   Year Samples/year No of positive cases   Positive samples/
year
Protozoan species   Helminth species
  Gl Eh Hn Al Ss Tt Ev Hw Taeniaspps. Sm  
2013 6,893 916
(35.9)
1261
(49.4)
89
(3.5)
12
(0.5)
16
(0.6)
18
(0.7)
20
(0.8)
140
(5.8)
1
(0.0)
111
(4.4)
2554
(37.1)
2014 7,305 856
(32.0)
1396(52.1) 102
(3.8)
12
(0.5)
11
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
18
(0. 7)
167 (6.7) 6
(0.2)
96
(3.6)
2679
(36.7)
2015 7,413 735 (30.3) 1235 (50.8) 79
(3.3)
7
(0.3)
20
(0.8)
8
(0.3)
28
(1.2)
192 (7.0) 11
(0.5)
89
(3.7)
2430
(32.8)
Keys: Gl= Giardia lambila; Eh= Entameobahistolytica; Hn= Hymenolepis nana; Al= Ascarislubricoids; Ev= Entrobiousverimicularis; Ss= Strongyloidessterocoralis, Tt= Tricuristricuria, Hw= Hookworm; Sm= Schistosomamansoni                  

Table 3: Intestinal parasites distribution by year total number and percentage (%) in Axum St. Marry Hospital, Tigray from 2013-2015.

Of 7,663 positive stool samples, in 53 (0.7%) of the stool samples more than one parasite were recorded. All the multi-parasitic infections were a double infections and the most common multiparasitic infection was E. histolytica and G. lamblia (Table 4).

Double infection Male (n = 4,313)
No. (%)
Female (n = 3,350) No. (%) Total (n = 7,663)
No. (%)
Al, Hn 3(0.07) 2 (0.06) 5(0.07)
Hw, Sm 4(0.10) 0(0.0) 4(0.05)
Eh, Gl 17(0.40) 12(0.36) 29(0.39)
Eh, Hn 7(0.16) 3(0.09) 10(0.13)
Eh, Ss 2(0.05) 0(0.0) 2(0.03)
Sm, Gl 1(0.02) 2(0.06) 3(0.04)
Total 34(0.79) 20(0.60) 53(0.69)
Keys: Al-
Ascarislumbricoides,
Ss-
Strongyloidesstercoralis,
Hn-Hymenolepissnana, Sm-Schistosomamansoni, Eh-
Entamoebahistolytica,
Gl-
Giardia lamblia,
Hw-Hookworm
 

Table 4: Stool samples with mixed infections and types of parasite combinations in Axum St. MarryHospital, Tigray from 2013-2015.

Discussion

In this study the overall prevalence of intestinal parasite was 35.5%. Studies from different part of Ethiopia [2,5,9-12] and outside Ethiopia [4,7] reported a prevalence of 22.7-79.8%. There was higher prevalence in this study compared to studies conducted in India and Nepal [4,7]. This might indicate better personal and environmental sanitation practice in the study area of those countries. The prevalence in this study is very low compared to a study conducted in Delgi among school children in north Gondar which was 79.8%.

This might be due to lack of awareness about the transmission and prevention ways of intestinal parasite which result in low sanitation practice in school children. Ten different intestinal parasites were detected in this retrospective study. E. histolytica and G. lambila were the predominant protozoan parasites while Hookworm was the commonest helminth parasite. In other studies also E. histolytica and G. lambila were the commonly detected protozoan parasites [2,10-13]. With regard to helminth parasites, in contrast to our study A. lumbricoides [9-12] was the commonest parasite in other studies. In some other studies H. nana [2,14] and T. trichiura [13] were the commonly detected intestinal helminthes. Generally E. histolytica, G. lambila, A. lumbricoides , hookworm infection and T. trichiura are the common intestinal parasites worldwide. These parasitic agents are also very common in Ethiopia. However, very low prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were found in our study area. This might be due to good awareness and hygienic practice of the community in the study area. The high prevalence of E. histolytic and G. lambila in the study area might be due to lack of clean water supply. Amebiasis and giardiasis are parasitic diseases mainly caused by drinking contaminated water. In our study area there is shortage of clean drinking water. As a result, the community might drink water from unsafe sources. There might be also lack of awareness about the transmission and prevention of parasitic diseases caused by drinking contaminated water. These factors can contribute for the high prevalence of Amebiasis and giardiasis in the study area. E.vermicularis infection is transmitted by hand to mouth and/or person to person directly. Due to the sticky nature of E.vermicularis egg in the perianal area scotch tape technique should be used for the detection of the parasite egg. The method of diagnosis used in the study hospital was not appropriate for the detection of E.vermicularis egg. This might be one of the reasons for the low prevalence in this study area. Generally the prevalence of intestinal parasite was variable from year to year. This might be due to the inconsistency of health education about personal and environmental sanitations given to the people and other interventions used to tackle intestinal parasite in the area.

Conclusion

The burden of intestinal parasites in study area is very high. This retrospective study showed a variable prevalence of intestinal parasites from year to year but with no significant reduction. Health education and practical measures on personal and environmental sanitation such as proper waste disposal are important to reduce intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. In addition, the regional administration must provide adequate and safe water supply for the community.

Funding

This study was funded by the authors. There was also support from Aksum University.

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Aksum University, College of Health science and Referral hospitals. Permission letter was obtained from Tigray regional state health bureau and Axum saint marry hospital. The data was collected with no personal identifiers at all stages of the study.

Availability of Data and Materials

The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Competing of Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author’s Contributions

DG* involved in proposal writing, designed the study and participated in all implementation stages of the project. DG* and HH also analyzed the data and finalized the write up of the manuscript. ST, DG and AS was responsible for critically revising the proposal and the manuscript. DG*, HH and YZ was responsible for data collection and drafting of manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

We deeply express our gratefulness to Aksum University for financial support without which this project would have not been possible. We would like to acknowledge all St. Marry hospital staffs for their cooperation for the accomplishment of this study. Special thanks to the laboratory head of St. marry hospital and other laboratory staffs.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 256
  • [From(publication date):
    April-2017 - Jun 26, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 203
  • PDF downloads :53
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version