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Evaluation of Irrigation Scheduling Program and Wheat Yield Response in Egyptian Sandy Soil Conditions

Abou El-Enin MM*

Agronomy Department, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Abou El-Enin MM
Agronomy Department, Al-Azhar University
Cairo, Egypt
Tel: 0221014878058
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: October 07, 2016; Accepted date: March 02, 2017; Published date: March 08, 2017

Citation: El-Enin AMM (2017) Evaluation of Irrigation Scheduling Program and Wheat Yield Response in Egyptian Sandy Soil Conditions. Adv Crop Sci Tech 5: 263. doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000263

Copyright: © 2017 El-Enin AMM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Two field experiments were performed in EL-Busily region, EL-Behira governorate under the condition of sandy soil during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons, to study the impact of three amount of water irrigation 60, 70 and 90% from evapotranspiration rate (1216 m3) and three compost rates (2, 4 and 6 ton/fed.) on some growth, yield and its components of two wheat varieties (sakha 93 and Gemmeiza 9). In both of seasons, the treatments were arranged in split split design in three replicates. Results of the two seasons showed that, by increasing the water irrigation amount from 60 to 70 or 90% of the evapotranspiration (1216 m3) that led to gradually significant increases for (leaf area (cm2)/plant, dry weight (gm)/plant) and yield and yield components (No. spikes/ m2, weight of grains /spike, No of grains/spike, weight of 1000 grains, economic yield (kg/fed) and harvest index). Compost rates had significant impacts on previous characteristics, during the two experimental seasons. The best compost rate was (6 ton/fed) which gave the best results for these traits. As compared with the lowest rate of 2 ton/fed. Results revealed that, Gemmieza 9 wheat variety exiled sakha 93 wheat variety significantly for above mentioned measurements during the two seasons. As for the first and second order interactions between the tested factors, results in the two trial seasons showed that, most of the interactions had significant effects on that character. It wealthy mentions that significant interaction effect was found between water irrigation amount with compost rates and wheat varieties was found during the two seasons. The highest values for previous characters were obtained by sowing Gemmieza-9 with adding irrigation quantity of 90% from evapotranspiration and practicing 6 ton compost per Fadden.

Keywords

rrigation scheduling; Compost; Wheat; Quantity; Varieties

Introduction

Wheat is the most important cereal crop as staple food grain in Egypt, where the local production is not sufficient to supply the annual demand of the increasing population. This caused gap between production and consumption. Hence, increasing wheat production is the most important possibility for reducing the wheat gap and reach self-sufficiency of wheat production. To achieve the obvious aim, it could be realized by two ways: First: expanding the area sown, second: improving the yield per unit area sown. Wheat areas in sandy soils have gradually increased over the last few years, du to the limitation of agricultural land in the old valley. Sandy soils are very much considered in the plain of horizontal expansion in Egypt [1]. Such soils are characterized by their bulk density and low values of native nutrient content and the high leaching losses of applied fertilizers, and water irrigation.

To overcome the sandy soils problem, it requires great efforts to improve its hydro-physical properties, as well as its productivity. The application compost as organic matter to such soil is desperately needed [2]. To increase soil fertilizer and minimize nutrient loss due to leaching, as well as improve moistureholding capacity of sandy soil

The current research is an attempt to find further ways to solve water scarcity in sandy soils in Egypt to increase water use efficiency for wheat, through optimizing water irrigation supply [3]. Recycling plants residues by converting them to compost that improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of sandy soils are needed. This may protect the new reclaimed land from the problems of pollution resulted from applying chemical fertilizers intensively for high production [4]. This investigation was carried out, to find out the effect of water irrigation quantity and organic fertilizer rats (compost) on growth, yield and yield components as well as water relationships for some wheat cultivars. Also, an important objective is finding out the best varieties which can be adapted under such desert environment conditions [5].

Materials and Methods

Tow field experiments were carried out during two successive growing seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at EL Busily area-Rosetta center, EL Behera governorate, Egypt to study the effect of irrigation quantity and compost rates on growth and yield of two wheat cultivars under the condition of fixed sprinkler irrigation system in sandy soil [6]. The varieties of wheat (Tritium aestivum) tested in this study were two high-yielding wheat cultivars; sakha93 and jemmieza9. Experimental field included eighteen treatmentswhich were the combination of three levels of water irrigation quantity, three rates of compost fertilizer and two wheat varieties.

The agricultural treatments tasted

A-Water irrigation quantity: 60, 70 and 90% from evapotranspiration rate.

B- Compost fertilizer rates: 2, 4 and 6 ton per Fadden.

C-Wheat varieties: 1- Sakha 93 2 - Gemmeiza 9

Soil samples were collected at experimental site to depth of 30,60 and 90 cm. before sowing for mechanical and chemical analysis which recorded in Tables 1 and 2 respectively. While Chemical analyses for compost fertilizer are given in Table 3. A split-split design with three replicates was used [7]. The main plots were randomly devoted to the irrigation quantity treatments. The sub plots were randomly devoted to the compost fertilizer rates. The sub-sub plots were randomly assigned to the two wheat varieties. Seeding rate was 60 kg/fed. Fadden and space planting was 20 cm between rows. The experimental plot area was 7 m2 (1 × 7 m), while the experimental main plot area was 59.5 m2 (7 × 8.5). There was 33 rows in each plot spaced 20 cm apart. Calcium super phosphate (15.5% P2O5) was added before sowing at rate 150 (kg/fed) As well as, potassium was added as potassium sulphate (48- 52%) at rate of 100 kg/fed [8]. while ammonium added as ammonium sulfate (20.6%) at rate of 360 (kg/fed) In five equal portions throw the irrigation system. The first, second, third, forth and fifth portion were added after (19, 29, 52, 66 and 73) respectively from sowing date [9]. The plots were irrigated at each 7 days interval as spring irrigation.

  Location Depth
(Cm)
PH
(1:2.5 )
EC
(ppm)
Total N
(ppm)
Organic
Matter (%)
El Beheira 30 cm 7.22 112.3 46 0.23
60 cm 7.59 112.3 39 0.72
90 cm 7.50 131 31 0.75

Table 1: Chemical analysis of soil in El Beheira site.

  Location Sample Depth
(Cm)
% Texture
clay sand silt
El Beheira 30 cm 8.88 8 83.12 Loamy sand
60 cm 6.88 6 87.12 Sand
90 cm 4.88 6 89.12 sand

Table 2: Mechanical analysis of soil in El Beheira site.

Micronutrients(ppm) Macronutrients (%)
Fe Mn Zn Cu N P K
776 534 52 18 0.76 0.11 1.14

Table 3: Chemical analyses for compost fertilizer sample.

Characteristics studied

A. Growth Characteristics:

1. Leaf area index (L.A.I) which taken at 90 days after sowing for two wheat variety. (L.A.I) was calculated as described by Watson (1958) as follows formula: LAI = leaf area per plant (cm2) /Ground area per plant (cm2).

2. Dry weight (g) per plant was recorded as the mean of 10 plants.

B. Yield and yield components:

1. Number of spikes per m2 was determined from a random sample of one m2 taken from each plot.

2. Grain yield (kg/Fed) which determined from all plants in each plot.

3. Harvest index was calculated as: HI = Economic yield (kg/fed) / Total Biological yield (kg/fed)*100.

4. 1000-grain Weight (g) was obtained from the weight of 1000 kernels taken at random from each plot.

5. Weight of grains (g) per spike.

6. No. of grains/spike: was recorded from a sample of 10 main spikes collected from 10 randomly selected plants in each plot.

Statistical analysis

In both of seasons, the treatments were arranged in split split design in three replicates [10]. The main plots were randomly devoted to the three levels of water irrigation quantity, the sub plots were randomly devoted to the three rates of compost fertilizer, the sub-sub plots were randomly assigned to the two wheat varieties. The mean values were compared at 5% level of significance using least significant differences (L.S.D) test.

Results and Discussion

Effect of irrigation treatments

The results presented in Tables 4-7 indicated that irrigation treatments had significant effect on all growth, yield and it’s components tasted during the experimental seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Wheat leaf area (cm2)/plant, dry weight (gm)/plant, No. spikes/m2, weight of grains/spike, No of grains/spike, weight of 1000 grains, economic yield (kg/fed) and harvest index were increased significantly by (12.82% and 20%), (75.5% and 58.1%), (28.7% and 17.0%), (19.7% and 20.1%), (11.1% and 9.3%), (16.2% and 13.3%), (65.82% and 43.45%), and (22.2% and 28.94%) respectively by adding water irrigation at the level of 90% from evapotranspiration (ET) as compared with the application of 60% from E.T.P. which awarded the lowest values for that treats during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 season respectively [11]. These results may be due to water defect during either of vegetative and pre-flowering stages which led to decrease water supply and nutrients which led to decrease leaf area /plant and dry weight/plant furthermore containing of water lack starting from developing flowers primordial till ovules fertilization may be led to the low appearance of florets primordial and decrease fertile flowers which in turn reduced No. of grains/spike and economic yield /fed. And harvest index but under the condition of 90% of ET may be increased nutrient uptake and adequate supply of them to wheat plants for proper growth and metabolic process. These results also confirmed by Ref. [1,2,12-14].

Effect of compost fertilizer rates

With regard to compost fertilizer rates as organic matter, data of the previous studied characters recorded in Tables 4-7 revealed that adding the organic matter as compost at the rate of 6 ton/fed. Led to increase all the values of the previous studied characters, significantly during the two experimental seasons, as compared with the lowest rate of 2 ton/fed. For example, in 2009/2010 season adding 6 ton/fed. Led to gain the greatest values for leaf area/plant (298 cm2/plant), dryweight/ plant (9.71 gm), No. of spikes/m2 (447.8), No. of grains/spike (84.8), economic yield (2458 kg./fed.) and harvest index (0.43). These results may be attributed with increase the addition of compost rate to 6 ton/ fed. Increased the exchangeable capacity of sandy soil, also may be led to increase the collecting of soil particles to improve its water holding capacity and its action exchange capacity. Similar results were obtained by [15,16].

Character No. of  grains per spike Weight of 1000 grains (gm)
Treatments First season 2009/2010 Second season 2010/2011 First season 2009/2010 Second season 2010/2011
Irrigation Compost V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean
   (2 ton) C1 62.0 67.0 64.5 65.0 70.0 68.0 32.9 40.0 36.5 36.0 41.0 38.5
I 1 (60%) (4 ton) C2 68.0 74.0 71.0 72.0 78.0 75.0 40.0 45.2 42.6 42.5 45.7 44.1
  (6 ton) C3 77.0 79.0 78.0 81.0 83.0 82.0 41.5 47.7 44.6 46.2 48.5 47.4
Mean   69.0 73.3 71.2 73.0 77.0 75.0 38.1 44.3 41.2 41.6 45.1 43.3
   (2 ton) C1 65.0 67.0 66.0 68.0 70.0 69.0 43.3 48.9 46.1 42.6 45.3 44.0
I 2 (70%) (4 ton) C2 71.0 71.0 71.0 74.0 80.0 77.0 45.2 47.5 46.4 41.3 45.3 43.3
  (6 ton) C3 80.0 91.0 85.5 83.0 94.0 89.0 45.5 47.7 46.6 46.8 50.5 48.7
Mean   72.0 76.3 74.2 75.0 81.0 78.0 44.7 48.0 46.4 43.6 47.0 45.3
   (2 ton) C1 68.0 71.0 69.5 70.0 73.0 72.0 48.0 45.4 46.7 46.3 48.5 47.4
I 3 (90%) (4 ton) C2 76.0 78.0 77.0 79.0 81.0 80.0 47.0 48.8 47.9 48.0 49.5 48.8
  (6 ton) C3 86.0 96.0 91.0 88.0 98.0 93.0 45.7 52.2 49.0 48.8 53.5 51.2
Mean   76.7 81.7 79.2 79.0 84.0 82.0 46.9 48.8 47.9 47.7 50.5 49.1
G.M.  V.   72.6 77.1 74.8 76.0 81.0 78.0 43.2 47.0 45.1 44.3 47.5 45.9
G.M.  V × C              
   (2 ton) C1 65.0 68.3 66.7 67.7 71.0 69.0 41.4 44.8 43.1 41.6 44.9 43.3
  (4 ton) C2 71.7 74.3 73.0 75.0 79.7 77.0 44.1 47.2 45.6 43.9 46.8 45.4
  (6 ton) C3 81.0 88.7 84.8 84.0 91.7 88.0 44.2 49.2 46.7 47.3 50.8 49.1
LSD at 5%      
   I = 3.1 3.10 0.69 2.43
  C= 2.4 2.45 0.71 1.99
  V = 1.4 1.43 0.77 0.82
  I  x C = 4.2 4.24 1.23 3.44
  I x V = 2.5 2.48 1.33 1.42
  C x V = 2.5 2.48 1.33 1.42
  I x C x V 4.3 4.29 2.31 2.45

Table 4: Quantity of water irrigation and compost levels affecting No. of grains per spike and Weight of 1000 grains (gm) for (sakha93, jemmieza9) Wheat varieties at harvest stage in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at El busily experiment.

Character No. spikes per m2 Weight of grains(gm) per spike
Treatments First season2009/2010 Second season 2010/2011 First season 2009/2010 Second season 2010/2011
Irrigation Compost V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean
  (2 ton) C1 263.0 284.0 273.5 334.0 380.0 357.0 3.95 4.63 4.29 4.20 5.13 4.67
I 1 (60%) (4 ton) C2 300.0 384.0 342.0 412.0 443.0 427.5 4.20 5.05 4.63 4.27 5.38 4.83
  (6 ton) C3 395.0 405.0 400.0 428.0 460.0 444.0 4.35 5.12 4.73 4.53 5.38 4.96
Mean 319.3 357.7 338.5 391.3 427.7 409.5 4.17 4.93 4.55 4.33 5.30 4.82
  (2 ton) C1 361.0 377.0 369.0 376.0 380.0 378.0 4.17 4.92 4.54 4.42 5.60 5.01
I 2 (70%) (4 ton) C2 402.0 448.0 425.0 451.0 470.0 460.5 4.88 5.58 5.23 4.93 5.98 5.46
  (6 ton) C3 423.0 466.0 444.5 468.0 493.0 480.5 4.92 6.07 5.49 5.10 6.40 5.75
Mean 395.3 430.3 412.8 431.7 447.7 439.7 4.66 5.52 5.09 4.82 5.99 5.41
  (2 ton) C1 371.0 390.0 380.5 405.0 409.0 407.0 5.00 5.13 5.07 5.03 5.62 5.33
I 3 (90%) (4 ton) C2 418.0 437.0 427.5 482.0 500.0 491.0 4.93 6.18 5.56 5.17 6.61 5.89
  (6 ton) C3 493.0 505.0 499.0 534.0 546.0 540.0 5.17 6.27 5.72 5.32 6.98 6.15
Mean 427.3 444.0 435.7 473.7 485.0 479.3 5.03 5.86 5.45 5.17 6.40 5.79
G.M.  V. 380.7 410.7 395.7 432.2 453.4 442.8 4.62 5.44 5.03 4.77 5.90 5.34
G.M.  V x C              
  (2 ton) C1 331.7 350.3 341.0 371.7 389.7 380.7 4.37 4.89 4.63 4.55 5.45 5.00
  (4 ton) C2 373.3 423.0 398.2 448.3 471.0 459.7 4.67 5.61 5.14 4.79 5.99 5.39
  (6 ton) C3 437.0 458.7 447.8 476.7 499.7 488.2 4.81 5.82 5.31 4.98 6.25 5.62
LSD at 5%      
  I = 2.89 1.75 0.18 0.18
  C= 4.56 2.98 0.24 0.31
  V = 2.90 3.71 0.13 0.19
  I  x C = 7.91 5.17 0.42 0.53
  I x V = 5.02 6.42 0.22 0.33
  C x V = 5.02 6.42 0.22 0.33
  I x C x V 8.70 11.12 0.38 0.58

Table 5: Quantity of water irrigation and compost levels affecting No. spikes per m2 and Weight of grains (gm) per spike for (sakha93, jemmieza9) Wheat varieties at harvest stage in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at El busily experiment.

Character Economic yield (kg. /fed.) Harvest index
Treatments First season 2009/2010 Second season2010/2011 First season 2009/2010 Second season2010/2011
Irrigation Compost V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean
  (2 ton) C1 1310 1348 1329 1650 1965 1808 0.30 0.34 0.32 0.33 0.35 0.34
I 1 (60%) (4 ton) C2 1553 1657 1605 1915 2049 1982 0.32 0.40 0.36 0.36 0.42 0.39
  (6 ton) C3 1624 2267 1946 2008 2643 2326 0.38 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.42 0.40
Mean 1496 1757 1627 1858 2219 2039 0.33 0.38 0.36 0.36 0.40 0.38
  (2 ton) C1 1401 1792 1597 1969 2803 2386 0.35 0.38 0.37 0.35 0.38 0.37
I 2 (70%) (4 ton) C2 1934 2278 2106 2014 2841 2428 0.37 0.40 0.39 0.39 0.45 0.42
  (6 ton) C3 2250 2435 2343 2730 2957 2844 0.40 0.43 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.45
Mean 1862 2168 2015 2238 2867 2553 0.37 0.40 0.39 0.39 0.43 0.41
  (2 ton) C1 2155 2641 2398 2328 3050 2689 0.36 0.45 0.41 0.37 0.45 0.41
I 3 (90%) (4 ton) C2 2445 2774 2610 2516 3176 2846 0.39 0.47 0.43 0.46 0.58 0.52
  (6 ton) C3 3058 3112 3085 3120 3360 3240 0.45 0.53 0.49 0.48 0.61 0.55
Mean 2553 2842 2698 2655 3195 2925 0.40 0.48 0.44 0.44 0.55 0.49
G.M.  V. 1970 2256 2113 2250 2760 2505 0.37 0.42 0.40 0.40 0.46 0.43
G.M.  V x C              
  (2 ton) C1 1622 1927 1775 1982 2606 2294 0.34 0.39 0.36 0.35 0.39 0.37
  (4 ton) C2 1977 2236 2107 2148 2689 2419 0.36 0.42 0.39 0.40 0.48 0.44
  (6 ton) C3 2311 2605 2458 2619 2987 2803 0.41 0.45 0.43 0.43 0.50 0.47
LSD at 5%      
  I = 29.1 41.2 0.005 0.005
  C= 22.3 28.3 0.003 0.005
  V = 15.5 8.2 0.002 0.003
  I  x C = 38.6 49.1 0.007 0.008
  I x V = 26.8 14.3 0.003 0.005
  C x V = 26.8 14.3 0.003 0.005
  I x C x V 46.4 24.7 0.006 0.009

Table 6: Quantity of water irrigation and compost levels affecting economic yield (kg/fed.) and harvest index for (sakha93, jemmieza9) Wheat varieties at harvest stage in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at El busily experiment.

Character Leaf area (cm2) per plant Dry weight (gm) per plant
Treatments First season 2009/2010 Second season 2010/2011 First season 2009/2010 Second season 2010/2011
Irrigation Compost V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean V1 V2 Mean
   (2 ton) C1 256 262 259 354 360 357 5.71 6.65 6.18 5.95 10.05 8.00
I 1 (60%) (4 ton) C2 273 269 271 370 366 368 5.96 7.86 6.91 7.78 9.93 8.86
  (6 ton) C3 283 293 288 381 390 386 5.96 8.20 7.08 8.61 12.30 10.46
Mean   271 275 273 368 372 370 5.88 7.57 6.72 7.45 10.76 9.10
   (2 ton) C1 262 305 283 371 413 392 5.83 9.81 7.82 9.35 13.97 11.66
I 2 (70%) (4 ton) C2 283 293 288 392 402 397 6.05 8.21 7.13 10.95 14.78 12.87
  (6 ton) C3 286 301 293 394 410 402 9.93 7.55 8.74 11.45 15.30 13.38
Mean   277 300 288 386 408 397 7.27 8.52 7.90 10.58 14.68 12.63
   (2 ton) C1 293 310 302 429 446 438 10.18 11.08 10.63 12.10 14.92 13.51
I 3 (90%) (4 ton) C2 293 326 310 429 456 440 10.58 12.33 11.46 12.35 15.80 14.08
  (6 ton) C3 307 320 314 443 462 455 11.06 15.56 13.31 13.33 17.82 15.58
Mean   298 319 308 434 455 444 10.61 12.99 11.80 12.59 16.18 14.39
G.M.  V.   282 298 290 396 412 404 7.92 9.69 8.81 10.21 13.87 12.04
G.M.  V x C              
   (2 ton) C1 271 292 282 384 406 395 7.24 9.18 8.21 9.13 12.98 11.06
  (4 ton) C2 283 296 290 397 404 397 7.53 9.47 8.50 10.36 13.50 11.93
  (6 ton) C3 292 305 298 406 425 418 8.98 10.44 9.71 11.13 15.14 13.14
LSD at 5%      
   I = 13.27 16.54 0.78 2.01
  C= 14.27 17.54 0.59 3.01
  V = 15.27 18.54 0.34 4.01
  I  x C = 16.27 19.54 0.95 5.01
  I x V = 17.27 20.54 0.51 6.01
  C x V = 18.27 21.54 0.51 7.01
  I x C x V 19.27 22.54 0.82 8.01

Table 7: Quantity of water irrigation and compost levels affecting leaf area (cm2) and Dry weight (gm) per plant for (sakha93, jemmieza9) Wheat varieties at harvest stage in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at El busily experiment.

Variance between varieties

Results presented in Tables 4-7 revealed that wheat varieties (sakha 93 and Gemmieza 9) were differed significantly in its leaf area/plant, dry weight/plant, No. of spikes/plant, grain weight/plant, No. of grains/ spike, 1000 grain weight,economic yield/fed. And harvest index during the two seasons [17]. Results revealed that Gemmieza 9 wheat variety exiled sakha 93 wheat variety for above mentioned measurements during the two seasons.

The interaction effect of factors under study

Irrigation level × compost rates interaction had significant effect on leaf area/plant, dry weight/plant, No. of spikes/plant, grain weight/ plant, No. of grains/spike, 1000 grain weight, economic yield/fed. And harvest index in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons. Results revealed that all above mentioned measurements increased gradually by increasing the guantity of water irrigation from 60% to 70% and 90% of evapotranspiration rate of wheat and by increasing the compost level from 2 ton to 4 and 6 ton/fed [18]. Improved of utilization of the high quantity of water irrigation which reflected to increase the above mentioned traits. Rresults also revealed that wheat varieties tested differed significantly under the irrigation levels tested.

Gemmeiza 9 wheat variety scored the greatest values for the above mentioned characters through all irrigation levels as compared with sakha 93 under the effect of the same irrigation treatments during the two seasons. As for compost levels x wheat varieties interaction effect [19-21]. Results in Tables 4-7 show significant measured characters during the two seasons. Gemmieza 9 wheat variety showed its superiority under the condition of each of 2 or 4 or 6 ton compost / fed, regarding to the second order interaction irrigation × compost × wheat varieties. Results in Tables 4-7 Revealed that Gemmiza 9 wheat plants utilized the greatest amount of water irrigation at the level of 90% of transpiration rate under the condition of 6 ton /fed. Compost get the significant greatest values of leaf area/plant, dry weight/plant, No. of spikes/plant, grain weight/plant, No. of grains/spike, 1000 grain weight, economic yield/fed and harvest index as compared with the other treatments during the two experimental seasons.

Acknowledgments

A lot of thanks, first of all, are going to our God, the most merciful, the most beneficial and helpful for everyone, and nothing could be achieved without his welling and support.

References

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