The stem cells, which are the source of the tissues and organs in the organism, regenerate the damaged and diseased tissues as the organism ages. There are different types of stem cells with self-renewal and differentiation ability in the umbilical cord blood located in the umbilical cord and placenta.
Although there are various stem cell sources, embryonic stem cells have unique features for the treatment of various diseases. These cells have several limitations in addition to being a promising source. To overcome these limitations, stem cells which are unproblematic and posses embryonic stem cell features are generated. In this context, in this chapter induced pluripotent stem cells (ipsc) were discussed.
Although conventional therapy of disorders due to loss of organ and tissue is organ and tissue transplantation, currently the term of regenerative medicine has emerged. This is an interdisciplinary field of research and clinical applications focused on the repair, replacement or regeneration of cells, tissues or organs to restore impaired function resulting from any cause, including congenital defects, disease, trauma and ageing. Embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells are promising source for this field.
In the world, thousands of people lose their lives due to organ failure depending upon various reasons. Because finding a new organ is a very difficult process. However, in the presence of the organ, the drugs used after transplantation can cause significant side effects for the patient. Tissue engineering has become an important research area to overcome these problems. In this chapter components of tissue engineering were discussed.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are highly tumorigenic and low differentiated, are a very small part of the heterogeneous cell population consisting of cancer cell mass. Cancer stem cells are thought to play an important role in failure of the treatment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a major role in the development of drug resistance and renewal of the disease. Therefore, treatments targeting cancer stem cells come forward. In this chapter we discuss the features of cancer stem cells and the importance of eradication of them.
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Istanbul, Turkey
Dr. Mehmet R. TOPCUL is currently Assistant Professor at University of Istanbul, Faculty of Science in Turkey. He served as Vice-Chairman of Biology Department. He taught Genetics, Health Physics, General Biology, Innovative Approaches in Cancer Biology, Nanotechnology in Biology, Trace Elements. In addition to this short e-book, he has written book chapters which are titled “Cancer Stem Cells”, “Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine” and “Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells” in Stem Cells in Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine; “The Biology Of Cancer Metastasis “ and “Breast Cancer” in Cancer: Disease of the Age; “Treatment of Colon Cancer” in Clinical Diagnosis and Therapy of Colorectal Cancer; “Latest Advances In Cancer Stem Cell Research; Treatment Options For Colorectal Cancer” in Modern Technology Present and Future and “Mutation Prevention” in Cancer Treatment Strategies in OMICS International. He has also written numerous researches and review articles about cancer and stem cells. He is director of Advanced Stem Cell & Biomolecular Technology Research Laboratories in University of Istanbul. He is an editorial board member in several prestigious journals in cancer research. His research interests have involved cancer molecular biology, cytogenetic, oncology, radiobiology, cell cultures, genetics, cancer stem cells, breast cancer and gynecological cancers. Based on this research he has received several awards and honors, such as: Publication Incentive Award and Successful Researcher Award. He has honored as International Selected Member by ESTRO and ASTRO.
Research assistant, Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Dr. Idil CETIN earned her bachelor degree (BSc, 4th class honours) about Biology and Molecular Biology & Genetics and master degree (MSc) at University of Istanbul and then studied for her doctorate degree (PhD) at the University of Istanbul, Turkey. She is a radiobiologist with broad research interests. She is well known for her work on cell and tissue engineering, cancer biology especially breast and gynecological cancers, stem cells and cancer stem cells.