The present chapter describes recent definition of chronic pain and pathogenesis, its broad classification and prevalence, and overall management focusing cost effective approach for patients suffering from common chronic pain.
The technique of awake craniotomy shows wide variation in terms of anaesthetic conduct. The preference really depends upon availability of resources, expertise and confidence levelof the team. Amongst various reported strategies, awake throughout approach seems to be logical for developing countries.
Effective analgesia for obstetric patients during labor holds paramount importance in improving maternal and neonatal outcomes. The obstetric analgesia service provision varies among different countries and even among different institutions of the same country.
Post anesthesia care unit is the facility specifically designed to provide immediate management of patients following completion of a surgical procedure and recovering from anesthesia, both general and regional.
There has been considerable advancement in the field of postoperative pain mangement and many drugs and newer techniques have been introduced in recent years. The whole paradigm has shifted towards using regional techniques and nerve blocks especially after the increased use of ultrasound for regional blocks, leading to much safer and efficacious outcomes.
In the developed world, antenatal and obstetric care is very specialized which has led to a decrease in incidence of obstetric causes of maternal mortality. In recent times, anesthesiologist has a pivotal role in ensuring safe maternal health care.
Professor of Anaesthesiology, Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Aliya Ahmed is working as Professor of Anaesthesiology at Aga Khan University (AKU) Karachi, Pakistan. She received her training in anaesthesiology from the United Kingdom and completed her Fellowship from the Faculty of Anaesthetists of Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland (FFARCSI). Her work involves clinical, academic, research and administrative responsibilities. She obtained her Master in Health Professions Education (MHPE) in 2014. She is actively involved in education at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and is presently the director of Department Education Cell. Dr. Ahmed has numerous publications to her credit. The main topics of her research include acute pain management and medical education and she has received research grants in these areas.
Associate Professor, FCPS (Anesthesiology) MHSc (Bioethics), Department of Anaesthesiology, Aga Khan University, PO Box 3500, Stadium Road, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
Dr Robyna Irshad Khan is an anesthesiologist working in Aga Khan University, Karachi Pakistan. She received her training in anesthesiology from Department of Anaesthesiology, Aga Khan University, and fellowship (FCPS-Anesthesiology) from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan. Dr Khan obtained her Master in Bioethics (MHSc) from University of Toronto and currently teaches bioethics at multiple levels within her university. Her areas of interest are regional anesthesia, acute pain management, clinical ethics, palliative care, and anesthesia education. Her passion is to improve anesthesia services in resource limited situations.