Soil enzymes are involved and assist all activities fundamental to agricultural sciences. Indeed, all biochemical transformations taking place in soil are dependent on the presence of enzymes.
Soil is a fundamental resource in the agricultural production system and monitoring its fertility is an important objective in the sustainable development of agro-ecosystems.
Living organisms, including plants, rely on metabolic processes for growth and development; enzymes play a pivotal role in growth, as they are biological catalysts of metabolic reactions.
The plant-soil interface is called rhizosphere; it is defined as the volume of soil around living roots and influenced by root activities.
Pesticides are usually applied simultaneously or one after another for crop protection, and this type of pesticide application often leads to a combined contamination of pesticide residues in soil environment.
Contamination of soils is a particularly serious problem because of the impact that it has on soil functioning, and on the whole ecosystem.
Dipartamento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell’Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Universitá di Napoli Federico
Liliana Gianfreda has been Full Professor of Agricultural Biochemistry at the University of Naples Federico II, Italy. She received her Ph.D. degree in Chemistry (1969) at the University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Her research focuses on Environmental and Soil Enzymology. The author, coauthor, co-editor of over 200 research articles, book chapters and books, she is member of the Italian Society of Chemistry, the Italian Society of Biochemistry, the International Union of Soil Sciences, the Italian Society of Agricultural Chemistry. Member of the Editorial Board of Enzyme Inhibition Journal, Biology and Fertility of Soils, Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition.
Department of Agriculture, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Maria A Rao is Associate Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Nutrition at the University of Naples Federico II, Italy. She received her Ph.D. degree in Agricultural Chemistry (1993) from the University of Naples Federico II, Italy. Her research focuses on Soil biochemistry and Environment protection. Author or co-author of more than 75 research articles, she is member of the Italian Society of Soil Science and Italian Society of Agricultural Chemistry. She was invited speaker at numerous National and International Congresses and Conferences. She was Guest Editor for the Special Issue ISMOM 2011 for European Journal of Soil Science.