This chapter on tumor genesis begins with a description of the normal structure of cells and tissues, followed by a discussion of normal process of growth of both cells and tissues.
Endocrinology is relatively a new branch of physiology began with classic experiments of a French scientist Ernald Berthold (1849) on domesticated rooster.
It is now some 20 years since it became widely appreciated that the growth of solid tumours requires a functional vasculature and that disruption of this functional vasculature could lead to novel anti-cancer therapies.
Mutations which are changes in DNA sequence are one of the most important cause of cancer which is one of the most important issues of our time.
The hypothesis that the immune system plays a role in the antitumor response and can be manipulated for the treatment of cancer was advanced as early as the 1890s, when William Coley used bacterial extracts to treat patients with sarcoma.
Cancer is a leading cause of disease worldwide and it is estimated that 12.7 million new cancer cases occurred worldwide in 2010.
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy in western countries.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is common amongst cancer patients particularly breast cancer patients are the most likely users. Numerous studies support that herbal medicines are amongst the most commonly used group of treatments among CAM.
The use of functional foods and nutraceuticals promotes the quality and length of life in patients suffering with cancer.
Thyroid cancer is the most common of the endocrine malignancies and it represents <1% of all human malignant tumours.
The parathyroid glands require an expert knowledge from the surgeon’s side to identify the unusual anatomic locations of the enlarged and sometimes the normal parathyroid glands.
Associate Professor of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, P.O.Box: 2713 Doha – Qatar
Dr. Ahmed M Malki is currently Associate professor, Health Sciences Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha. He graduated from Edison Institute of Biotechnology at Ohio University (USA) in 2006 with PhD in Molecular Oncology then He joined Nutritional Science and Toxicology department at University of California Berkeley, USA in 2007. Then, he was appointed as director of Genetic Engineering laboratories at center of excellence at City of Research and Technology. He is an editorial board member in several prestigious journals in biochemistry and cancer research. He received best research record award from Ohio University in 2006, best research paper from global breast cancer conference in Seoul, South Korea in 2011 and best research award from Annual Research Day 2014 in Qatar. He also received Alexandria University award for scientific encouragement and achievement in 2011. He is currently a leader of group of no of grants in the field of molecular therapeutics. The central theme of Dr. Malki’s research is the understanding of the signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation and cell death and designing novel anticancer drugs. Signaling transduction pathways and networks have recently proven to be attractive targets for cancer therapy. Dr. Malki’s laboratory is also interested in designing novel anticancer drugs that could be used alone or could be used as a therapeutic in conjunction with radiation for the treatment of cancer as radio sensitizers. More specifically, EGFR-Ras-PI3K-PTEN-Akt pathway which is the major radio protective pathway active in most solid tumors and this pathway then presents targets that could be manipulated in a clinical setting to modify the radiation response. Dr. Malki’s laboratory is interested in developing small molecules that specifically trigger cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and act as radiosenitizers. He is currently a leader of group of no of grants in the field of molecular therapeutics.