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Applications of Molecular Genetics in Personalized Medicine

Applications of Molecular Genetics in Personalized Medicine

Applications of Molecular Genetics in Personalized Medicine

  • Editor: Dr. Korkut Ulucan  
  • Publisher: OMICS International
  • Published On: April 2015 , Thu 16
  • Chapter 1      
    Application of Microsatellite Marker Analysis
    Authors: Lan Kluwe

    Microsatellites are DNA sequences consisting of short repeats of highly variable number. Hundreds thousands of such pieces of sequences have been found throughout the human genome. Microsatellites are extremely powerful markers for distinguishing alleles at linked loci and thus can be used in linkage studies, segregation analysis and in investigating somatic loss of heterozygosity or allele imbalance in tumours.

  • Chapter 2      
    DNA Replication
    Authors: Vasiliki E Kalodimou

    When all cells go through prior to any type of cell division a process called DNA replication takes place. During DNA replication the cells replicate their DNA in two identical copies from the original one. As a result of this process the daughter cells generated from cell division will have a complete copy of the DNA necessary for their survival.

  • Chapter 3      
    DNA Sequencing, Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing
    Authors: Yao Fei

    In 1953, when the paper of double helix structure of DNA was published by James Watson & Francis Crick, it was true to consider its applications for base pare sequencing in DNA. However, the first experimental determination of DNA sequence was only available after 15 years when Wu and Kaiser reported the partial sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA. There are many factors contributed to the delay including the similarly chemical property of different DNA molecules; length of naturally occurring DNA molecules; only four bases in DNA sequence and no base-specific DNAases.

  • Chapter 4      
    Gene Silencing in Personalized Transfusion Medicine: Generation of Universal Blood Cellular Components
    Authors: Rainer Blasczyk , Christiane Gras , Constança Figueiredo

    Blood cellular components such as erythrocytes, platelets or granulocytes are regularly used in transfusion medicine. The variability of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a major obstacle in the field of transplantation and transfusion medicine.

  • Chapter 5      
    Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine: Present and Future Promises for Cancer Patients
    Authors: Meraj A Khan

    Cancer is a leading cause of death which associated with tremendous social and economic burdens. The latest World Health Organization (WHO) statistics predicted ~13.2 millionworldwide cancer related deaths by 2030, which is significantly higher from 7.6 million in year 2008.

  • Chapter 6      
    Post-Translatıonal Modıfıcatıons of Proteins
    Authors: Zeynep M. Akdeste , Mesut Karahan , Pelin Pelit Arayıcı , Tayfun Acar

    Protein Post-Translational Modification (PTM) increases the functional variety of the proteome by covalent bonding of functional groups and proteins, also proteolytic splitting of regulatory subunits and the degradation of the whole proteins.

  • Chapter 7      
    Structure and Organization of DNA
    Authors: Vasiliki E Kalodimou

    DNA is a double-helix with two strands running in opposite directions. Each chain is a polymer; therefore, DNA is a polymer. The monomer units of DNA are nucleotides, while the polymer is known as a “polynucleotide.”

  • Chapter 8      
    Transcription and Translation
    Authors: Mesut Karahan , Tayfun Acar , Pelin Pelit Arayıcı

    Transcription means that the genetic informations stored in double-stranded DNA are copied or printed in the form of a singlestranded RNA molecule like mRNA, tRNA, rRNA.

  • Chapter 9      
    Application of DNA Microarrays in Cytogenetics
    Authors: Mohammad Azhar Aziz

    Human genome comprising of approximately 3 billion bases compacted into 23 pairs of chromosomes is the blue print of life in an individual.

  • Chapter 10      
    Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacogenetics: The Future of Personalised Medicine
    Authors: Francesca Marini

    Prediction of drug response, both in terms of efficacy and safety, is the great challenge of modern personalised medicine.

  • Dr. Korkut Ulucan

    Associate Professor, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Üsküdar University, Istanbul

    He was born in 1976 in Istanbul. He completed his primary education at Tuzla Merkez Primary School and his secondary education at Hüseyin Avni Sözen Anatolian High School. After graduating from Marmara University Biology Teaching Department in 1999, he completed Master (2003) and PhD (2009) programs in Marmara University Medical Faculty Department of Medical Biology and Genetics respectively. He also worked as a research assistant in the Department of Medical Biology and Genetics of Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences between 2000-2009. After consulting biotechnology firms between 2009-2012, Üsküdar University Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics in 2012- 2014 has been a teaching member. He has been associate professor of Molecular Genetics in 2014 and currently teaches lectures and seminars in Medical Biology and Genetics Department of Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry and Department of Medical Genetics, Pharmacogenetics, Nutritional Genetics, Sports Genetics and Gen Dopingi at Üsküdar University Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences.

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