|Ammonium acetate; Ammonium chloride; Biofield
treatment; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Ultraviolet
|Ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) is a white crystalline solid,
water soluble compound derived from the chemical reaction ammonia
and acetic acid. Being a salt of weak base and weak acid, it possesses
several distinct applications like, it is used as an aqueous buffer for
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Evaporative
Light Scattering Detector (ELSD) and Electrospray Ionization Mass
Spectrometry (ESI-MS) of proteins [1,2]. It is also used as a food additive
to regulate the acidity. Therapeutically, it is reported as an antidiuretic and antipyretic and also as a nutrient [1,3]. Ammonium acetate is also
used as an intermediate and catalyst in numerous chemical reactions
[1,4]. On the contrary, ammonium acetate also associated
toxicities like flaccidity of facial muscles, generalized discomfort,
tremor, anxiety, and impairment of motor performance .
|Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is also a white crystalline inorganic
salt, having high solubility in water. The natural and mineralogical form
of ammonium chloride is known as sal ammoniac. The ammonium
chloride has wide application in the field of medicine, agriculture
and in food. In medicine, it is used as an expectorant in cough syrup
due to irritative effect on the bronchial mucosa. Ammonium chloride
causes the nausea and vomiting effects owing to irritative effect on
gastric mucosa . It is also used as a systemic acidifying agent for
the treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis, and to maintain the
urine at acidic pH in the treatment of urinary-tract disorders . In
food products, ammonium chloride is used as an additive or feed
supplement for cattle and as a nutrient for yeast and other microbes
[7,8]. It is also used to improve the crispness of cookies and snacks
items. In agriculture, the ammonium chloride is used as an important source of nitrogen in fertilizers . The chemical and physical stability
of any chemical compound are most desired qualities that determine
its shelf life and effectiveness . Hence, it is advantageous to find out
an alternate approach, which could enhance the stability of compounds
by altering the structural properties of these compounds. Recently,
biofield treatment is reported to alter the physical, and structural
properties of various living and non-living substances [11,12]. The
relation between mass-energy was described by Einstein through a wellknown
equation E=mc2 . Planck M gave a hypothesis that energy
is a property of matter or substances that neither can be created nor
destroyed but can be transmitted to other substances by changing into
different forms . According to Maxwell JC, every dynamic process
in the human body had an electrical significance . Researchers
have experimentally demonstrated the presence of electromagnetic
field around the human body using medical technologies such as
electromyography, electrocardiography and electroencephalogram . This electromagnetic field of the human body is known as biofield
and energy associated with this field is known as biofield energy .
Mr. Trivedi has the ability to harness the energy from environment or universe and can transmit into any object (living or nonliving) around
this Globe. The object(s) always receive the energy and responding into
useful way, this process is known as biofield treatment [11,12]. Mr.
Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment is also called as The Trivedi Effect®,
and known to alter the characteristics of many things in the verities
of research fields including microbiology [11,18], agriculture [19,20],
and biotechnology [21,22]. Recently, impact of biofield treatment on
atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics as well as spectroscopic
characters of different materials were studied and alteration in physical,
thermal and chemical properties were reported [12,23,24].
|Considering the effects of biofield treatment on various living and
nonliving things, the study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield
treatment on spectral properties of ammonium acetate and ammonium
chloride. The effects were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared
(FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques.
|Materials and Methods
|The ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride were procured
from Sigma-Aldrich, India. Each compound was divided into two
parts and coded as control and treatment. The control samples were
remained as untreated, and treatment samples were handed over in
sealed pack to Mr. Trivedi for biofield treatment under laboratory
conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided this treatment through his energy
transmission process to the treatment groups without touching
the samples. The control and treated samples of ammonium acetate
and ammonium chloride were evaluated using FT-IR and UV-Vis
|FT-IR spectroscopic characterization
|For FT-IR analysis of control and treated samples of ammonium
acetate and ammonium chloride, the samples were crushed into fine
powder. Consequently, the crushed powder was mixed in spectroscopic
grade KBr in an agate mortar and pressed into pellets with a hydraulic
press. FT-IR spectra of were acquired on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform
infrared spectrometer (Japan) with frequency range of 500-4000 cm-1
and a maximum resolution of 0.5 cm-1. The analysis were carried out to
evaluate the impact of biofield treatment at atomic level such as force
constant, dipole moment, and bond strength in chemical structure
|UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis
|UV spectra of control and treated ammonium acetate and
ammonium chloride were acquired on Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series
spectrophotometer with 1 cm quartz cell and a slit width of 2.0 nm.
The study was carried out using wavelength in the range of 200-400
nm. The UV spectral analysis was performed to determine the effect
of biofield treatment on the energy gap between bonding (π-π*) and
nonbonding (n-π*) electrons transition .
|Results and Discussion
|FT-IR spectroscopic analysis
|The FT-IR spectra of control and treated ammonium acetate are
shown in Figure 1 and the IR spectral interpretation results are reported
in Table 1. The FT-IR spectrum of control ammonium acetate (Figure
1a) showed the IR peaks at 3024-3586 cm-1 for N-H stretching of NH4
group. These peaks were shifted to higher frequency region i.e., at 3033-
3606 cm-1 in treated sample (Figure 1b), which indicated an enhanced
force constant of N-H bond as compared to control. IR frequency (ν) of stretching vibrational peak depends on two factors i.e., force constant
(k) and reduced mass (μ) which can be explained by following equation
|,Here, c is speed of light.
|If μ is constant, then the frequency is directly proportional to the
force constant; hence, alteration (increase or decrease) in frequency of
any bond indicates a respective change in force constant .
|The C-H stretching’s were appeared at 2826-2893 cm-1 in control
sample that were shifted to lower wavenumber in treated sample i.e.,
at 2817-2881 cm-1. The C=O asymmetrical stretchings were appeared
at 1660-1702 cm-1 in control sample, which were shifted to higher
wavenumber in treated sample i.e., at 1680-1714 cm-1. This could be
due to increased bond strength of C=O bond in treated sample as
compared to control. N-H bending was assigned to peaks at 1533-
1563 cm-1 in control sample of ammonium acetate that were observed
at 1506-1556 cm-1 in treated sample. It depicted a reduced torsion
force of N-H bending after biofield treatment as compared to control.
The C=O symmetrical stretching was assigned to peak at 1404 cm-1
in control sample, which was observed at higher wavenumber i.e., at
1422 cm-1 in treated sample as compared to control. This shifting of
C=O bond to higher frequency region was occurred possibly due to
increased force constant of C=O bond. The C-H deformation bends
were assigned to the peaks at 1281-1342 cm-1 in control and 1292-
1340 cm-1 in treated sample of ammonium acetate. Likewise, the C-O
stretching peaks were observed at 1016-1050 cm-1 in control sample,
which were slightly shifted to lower frequency i.e., at 1006-1043 cm-1
in treated sample. This could be due to reduced force constant of C-O
bond after biofield treatment as compared to control. Overall, the FTIR
results of ammonium acetate suggest a significant impact of biofield
treatment at the atomic level i.e., at dipole moment and force constant
of respective bonds. The FT-IR data of control ammonium acetate was
well supported by the literature .
|The FT-IR spectra of control and treated ammonium chloride
are shown in Figure 2 and the IR spectral interpretation results are
reported in Table 2. Krishnan RS reported that NH4 ion has tetrahedral
symmetry therefore it showed four distinct mode of oscillations i.e.,
ν1 and ν2 due to single and double degenerate, and ν3 and ν4 are triply
degenerate N-H vibrations, respectively [28,29]. The ν1 and ν3 peaks
were observed at 3010 cm-1 and 3156 cm-1, respectively in control
(Figure 2a). Whereas, these were observed at 3029 cm-1 (ν1) and 3124
cm-1 (ν3) in treated sample (Figure 2b). The result showed an upstream
shifting of peak ν1 and downstream shifting of peak ν3 in threated sample
with respect of control. This could be due to biofield induced alteration
in force constant of N-H stretching in treated sample as compared
to control. Likewise, the vibrational peaks ν2 and ν4 were appeared at
1724 cm-1 and 1402 cm-1, respectively in control sample and 1441 cm-1
(ν2) and 1401 cm-1 (ν4) in treated sample of ammonium chloride. The
result showed an upstream shifting of peak ν2 i.e., from 1724 cm-1 to
1741 cm-1 in treated sample, which depicted a corresponding increase
in torsional force of ν2 oscillation. Additionally, the N-Cl stretching
was assigned to peak at 710 cm-1 in control sample that was shifted to
lower frequency at 665 cm-1 in treated sample. This similarly suggests
a possible decrease in force constant of N-Cl stretching after biofield
treatment as compared to control. Overall, the FT-IR spectral data of
control and treated ammonium chloride showed an impact of biofield
treatment on the internal oscillation of NH4 group and N-Cl stretching.
This could be due to alteration in force constant and dipole moment of
ammonium chloride molecules after biofield treatment as compared to
control. Because of alteration in force constant and bond strength, the chemical stability of treated compounds might also be alter. Based on
this, it is speculated that biofield treatment could be used to increase
the chemical stability of any compound, which might be more useful
than the untreated compound.
|UV spectra of control and biofield treated ammonium acetate are
shown in Figure 3. The UV spectrum of control ammonium acetate
(Figure 3a) showed the absorption maxima (λmax) at 258.0 nm. Whereas, in biofield treated sample of ammonium acetate, this absorption
maxima (λmax) was appeared at 221.4 nm and 204.6 nm (Figure 3b).
As per existing literature on principle of UV spectrophotometer, the
compound can absorbs UV light due to the presence of conjugated pi
(π) bonding systems (π- π* transition) and nonbonding electron system
(n-π* transition). There are certain energy gape between π-π* and n-π*
orbitals. When this energy gap altered, the wavelength (λmax) was
also altered respectively . Based on this, it is speculated that, due
to influence of biofield treatment, the energy gap between σ-σ*, π-π*
or n-π* transition in ammonium acetate molecules might be altered, which causes the shifting of wavelength (λmax) in treated sample with
respect to control.
|The UV spectra of control and treated ammonium chloride
are shown in Figure 4. The control sample (Figure 4a) exhibited the
absorbance maxima (λmax) at 234.6 nm and 292.6 nm. Whereas, the
biofield treated ammonium chloride exhibited the absorbance maxima
(λmax) at 224.1 and 302.8 nm (Figure 4b). This slight shifting of λmax
after biofield treatment also suggest a possible alteration in energy gap
between σ-σ*, π-π* or n-π* transition in ammonium chloride molecule with respect to control. Altogether, the UV spectral data of both the
ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride (control and treated)
revealed a considerable impact of biofield treatment on the atomic level
of respective compound.
|FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated ammonium acetate showed the
alteration in wavenumber of IR peaks assigned to N-H, C-H, C=O and
C-O stretching as compared to control. Likewise, the biofield treated ammonium chloride showed the alteration in wavenumber of IR peaks
assigned to three (ν1, ν2, and ν3) out of four distinct internal oscillations
of NH4 group as well as N-Cl stretching with respect of control. UV
spectra of ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride showed the
alteration in absorption maxima (λmax) after biofield treatment as
compared to respective control.
|Altogether, the FT-IR results suggest an impact of biofield
treatment on atomic level like dipole moment, force constant, bond
strength, and flexibility of treated compounds with respect to control.
Likely, the UV result suggests the impact of biofield treatment on bonding and nonbonding electron transition of treated compounds
with respect to control.
|The authors would like thank Trivedi Science™, Trivedi Master
Wellness™ and Trivedi Testimonials for their consistent support during
the work. Authors also like to acknowledge the whole team of MGV
Pharmacy College, Nashik for providing the instrumental facility.
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