Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, (A Central University), Bilaspur, 495009, Chhattisgarh, India
Received date: November 04, 2014; Accepted date: March 01, 2015; Published date: March 09, 2015
Citation: Patel DK (2015) Diversity of Underground Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and their Regeneration for Further Ex situ Conservation in Herbal Garden. J Biodivers Endanger Species 3:152. doi:10.4172/2332-2543.1000152
Copyright: © 2015 Patel DK. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Plants include a variety of useful substances for human beings and are widely used for treatment of various disorders. Plants are propagated mostly by their seeds but stem cutting also found to be useful for this purpose. Except of above methods some plants are also propagating through their modified root or stem found commonly inside of the soil or underground part of the plant. Some examples are Rhizome, Bulb, Tuber, corm etc. These structures are modified form and useful to regenerate the plants in favorable environmental condition. During of adverse condition these are found in resting phase and when moisture level increase new buds are produced by nodular part of them which performing efficient capability to reproducing the new plants as their parental ones. 42 Medicinal and aromatic plants underground parts were collected in different part of the Chhattisgarh and propagated in Herbal Garden in poly bags and also direct in the prepared beds. Developed new individuals of these plants in poly bags were carefully shifted to the prepared field for their further growth and development. As per need of the newly developing plants necessary facilities were provided.
Ex situ conservation; Diversity; Medicinal and aromatic plants; Underground parts; Herbal Garden
Plants are valuable components of the global biodiversity. Among a large group of the plants many plants are significantly performing their applicability in multifold utility for human beings. These are a major source of the food, fodder, fuel and also categorized for the use as medicine these group of the plants are referred as a Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.
Diversity, presence, mode of utilization, propagation modes etc. are differs from plants species to species. It is directly or indirectly affected by various factors like local environmental condition, Available facilities required for the growth and development of the plants as well as their genetic makeup.
Various plant parts like root, stem, and leaf are useful for specific purpose such as for medicinal value or for propagation. Modified plant parts like Bulb, Tuber, Rhizome, Corm etc. are also registered as useful plant parts for certain species. These structures are found to be useful for propagation as alternative source of the seeds and used for medicinal values. Mode of their utilization is variable.
Day by day due to climatic changes, increasing population load, over exploitation etc. are becoming major reasons for loss of the species in different habitat. Valuable plant parts which located inside of the soil are referred as Underground plants. These are mostly regenerated by their modified underground structures like Bulb, Tuber, Rhizome, Corm etc.
Some Medicinal and Aromatic plants are propagating by both the modes like by seeds as well as by underground plant parts like Asparagus racemosus. So in current scenario there is an urgent need for their assessment, regeneration and conservation for future generation.
Present study focuses on the collection/Propagation of the diverse underground Medicinal and Aromatic plants. Among the introduced Underground Medicinal and Aromatic plants some are endangered need for much care and conservation.
Ethno-medicinal Study/Use of medicinal plants of these plants were made by Abhyankar and Upadhyay , Agarwal , Sharma and Kumar , Wagh and Jain , Swarnakar and Katewa , Savithramma et al. , Jyothi et al. , Shajeela et al. , Sheikh et al. , Sujatha and Renuga .
Documentation of Wild tuberous plants was carried out by Prashanth and Shiddamallayya . Conservation strategy for Gloriosa superva Linn was made by Singh et al.  whereas conservation of highly exploited medicinal plants of Vindhyam range (U.P.) studied by Singh et al. . Conservation and cultivation of threatened and high valued medicinal plants in north East India carried out by Shankar and Rawat . Review on a tuberous, endangered medicinal plant was done by Ade and Rai .
Underground plant parts like Bulb, Tuber, Rhizome, Corms were collected / removed from soil and carried out in Herbal Garden for their further regeneration. Underground plant parts were collected and shade dry was applied for their storage and for control on bud/ root initiation. When it gets favorable environmental condition it starts their growth.
Above parts were primarily initiated the origination of new buds/roots for this purpose these are put in cotton/jute clothes with proper water management. After initiation of the new buds of the underground parts were selected for further development. Each part of the underground parts used for this purpose selected by the presence of one, two buds and are carefully removed from the mother plants. These plant parts were deep in soil in moderate depth than cover by using soil mixing with sand and manure. Light irrigation applied in planted these plant parts.
As per need of the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants water, nutrient etc. were provided and protected the plant against diseases, insect pest etc. effect. Excess water removal facility was also carried out for protection of these structures against its decay.
Collected varied underground plant parts were stored in shade and dry places in summer season and during of starting of rains these are applied for development of new buds which are efficient to develop into new individuals as their parental ones.
Results of the current research is shown in Table 1 that includes each plants Common name, Botanical names, Family, Habit, Propagation and mode of multiplication. Table 2 is for distribution of the Medicinal and Aromatic plants according to their families individually. Maximum members of the family Liliaceae 13 plant species were propagated, secondly 09 species of the family Zingiberaceae was propagated by Rhizomes. Rests of the plants belonging to listed families were propagated 01- 04 plant species separately.
|S. No.||Common Name||Botanical Name||Family||Habit||Propagation||Mode of Multi-
|3||AmaAdarak, Mango ginger||Curcuma amada
|5||Beet||Beta vulgaris L.
|6||Black Turmeric||Curcuma caesiaRoxb.||Zingiberaceae||Herb||Rhizome||Poly Bags|
|9||Canyon morning-glory||Ipomoea barbatisepala A. Gray.||Convolvulaceae||Herb||Tuber/Stem cutting||Field|
|10||Cylindrical Snake Plant||SensiveriacylindricaBojer.||Agavaceae||Herb||Rhizome||Poly Bags|
|11||Easter lily||Hippeastrumpuniceum (Lam.) Vossl.||Amaryllidaceae||Herb||Bulb||Field|
|13||Four o’ clock plant||Mirabilis jalapaLinn.||Nyctaginaceae||Herb||Seed/ Stem cutting/Tuber||Poly Bags|
|14||Garlic||Allium sativumLinn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Bulb||Poly Bags|
|18||Kalihari, Glory Lili||GloriosasupervaLinn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Tuber||Poly Bags|
|19||Keukand||Costusspeciosus(J.Konig) Sm.||Liliaceae||Herb||Rhizome||Poly Bags|
|22||Onion||Allium cepaLinn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Bulb||Poly Bags|
|23||Pink rain lily||ZephyranthesroseaLindl.
|24||Rajnigandha||Polyanthus tuberosaLinn.||Amaryllidaceae||Herb||Tuber||Poly Bags|
|25||Ram dauton||Smilax Chinensis Linn.||Smilacaceae||Shrub||Rhizome||Field|
|29||Sisal Hemp||Agave sesalanaPerr.||Agavaceae||Shrub||Rhizome||Poly Bags|
|30||Small Arbi||Colocasiaesculenta(L) Schott||Araceae||Herb||Corm||Poly Bags|
|31||Snake Plant||SensiveriatrifaciataPrain.||Agavaceae||Herb||Rhizome||Poly Bags|
|32||Spider lily||Crinum latifoliumLinn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Bulb||Field|
|33||Sudarshan||Crinum latifolium Linn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Bulb||Poly Bags|
|34||Sudersan||Linnumusitatissium Linn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Bulb||Poly Bags|
|35||Sweet flag||Acoruscalamus Linn.||Araceae||Herb||Rhizome||Poly Bags|
|36||Sweet potato||Ipomoea batatas Linn.||Convolvulaceae||Herb||Tuber/Stem cutting||Field|
|37||Tikhur||Curcuma angustifolia.||Zingiberaceae||Herb||Rhizome||Poly Bags|
|38||Wild Onion||Allium canadenseLinn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Bulb||Poly Bags|
|39||Wild garlic||Allium vinealeLinn.||Liliaceae||Herb||Bulb||Poly Bags|
|40||Wild Zinger||Curcuma aromticaLinn.||Zinziberaceae||Herb||Rhizome||Field|
Table 1: Underground medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) and their regeneration in herbal garden.
|4||Araceae||+, +,+, +||-||-||4|
|10||Liliaceae||+, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+||-||-||13|
|14||Zingiberaceae||+, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+||-||-||9|
Table 2: Family wise distribution of aromatic plants.
Used plant parts for propagation of different Medicinal and Aromatic plants were recorded in variable modes and numbers listed in Table 3. Rhizome is used to propagate 19 plant species, 11 species by Bulbs and rest modes were applied for different species of the Medicinal and Aromatic plants.
|S. No.||Mode of Multiplication||Number|
|6||Seed/ Stem cutting/Tuber||1|
Table 3: Multiplication methods of MAPs.
Table 4 is for diversity in habits of the introduced plant species. 38 species are regenerated for maximum herbs, 02 - 02 plant species were for Shrubs and Herb/climber during the tenure of the present study.
|S. No.||Habit Type||Number of the Aromatic Plants|
Table 4: Diversity in habit of the underground medicinal and aromatic plants.
The current work is supported by UGC New Delhi under Start up Grant for carrying out research in the field of/ Topic “Ex situ Conservation of important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) Resources from Chhattisgarh in Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University) Campus, Bilaspur (C.G.)” No. F. 20 – 17 (3)/2012 (BSR) - Dated 8 March 2013.