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ISSN: 2332-2543
Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species
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Diversity of Underground Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and their Regeneration for Further Ex situ Conservation in Herbal Garden

Patel DK*

Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, (A Central University), Bilaspur, 495009, Chhattisgarh, India

*Corresponding Author:
Patel DK
Department of Rural Technology
Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya
(A Central University), Bilaspur
495009, Chhattisgarh, India
Tel: +91-9993660173
E-mail: dplantscience@yahoo.co.in

Received date: November 04, 2014; Accepted date: March 01, 2015; Published date: March 09, 2015

Citation: Patel DK (2015) Diversity of Underground Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and their Regeneration for Further Ex situ Conservation in Herbal Garden. J Biodivers Endanger Species 3:152. doi:10.4172/2332-2543.1000152

Copyright: © 2015 Patel DK. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Plants include a variety of useful substances for human beings and are widely used for treatment of various disorders. Plants are propagated mostly by their seeds but stem cutting also found to be useful for this purpose. Except of above methods some plants are also propagating through their modified root or stem found commonly inside of the soil or underground part of the plant. Some examples are Rhizome, Bulb, Tuber, corm etc. These structures are modified form and useful to regenerate the plants in favorable environmental condition. During of adverse condition these are found in resting phase and when moisture level increase new buds are produced by nodular part of them which performing efficient capability to reproducing the new plants as their parental ones. 42 Medicinal and aromatic plants underground parts were collected in different part of the Chhattisgarh and propagated in Herbal Garden in poly bags and also direct in the prepared beds. Developed new individuals of these plants in poly bags were carefully shifted to the prepared field for their further growth and development. As per need of the newly developing plants necessary facilities were provided.

Keywords

Ex situ conservation; Diversity; Medicinal and aromatic plants; Underground parts; Herbal Garden

Introduction

Plants are valuable components of the global biodiversity. Among a large group of the plants many plants are significantly performing their applicability in multifold utility for human beings. These are a major source of the food, fodder, fuel and also categorized for the use as medicine these group of the plants are referred as a Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.

Diversity, presence, mode of utilization, propagation modes etc. are differs from plants species to species. It is directly or indirectly affected by various factors like local environmental condition, Available facilities required for the growth and development of the plants as well as their genetic makeup.

Various plant parts like root, stem, and leaf are useful for specific purpose such as for medicinal value or for propagation. Modified plant parts like Bulb, Tuber, Rhizome, Corm etc. are also registered as useful plant parts for certain species. These structures are found to be useful for propagation as alternative source of the seeds and used for medicinal values. Mode of their utilization is variable.

Day by day due to climatic changes, increasing population load, over exploitation etc. are becoming major reasons for loss of the species in different habitat. Valuable plant parts which located inside of the soil are referred as Underground plants. These are mostly regenerated by their modified underground structures like Bulb, Tuber, Rhizome, Corm etc.

Some Medicinal and Aromatic plants are propagating by both the modes like by seeds as well as by underground plant parts like Asparagus racemosus. So in current scenario there is an urgent need for their assessment, regeneration and conservation for future generation.

Present study focuses on the collection/Propagation of the diverse underground Medicinal and Aromatic plants. Among the introduced Underground Medicinal and Aromatic plants some are endangered need for much care and conservation.

Ethno-medicinal Study/Use of medicinal plants of these plants were made by Abhyankar and Upadhyay [1], Agarwal [2], Sharma and Kumar [3], Wagh and Jain [4], Swarnakar and Katewa [5], Savithramma et al. [6], Jyothi et al. [7], Shajeela et al. [8], Sheikh et al. [9], Sujatha and Renuga [10].

Documentation of Wild tuberous plants was carried out by Prashanth and Shiddamallayya [11]. Conservation strategy for Gloriosa superva Linn was made by Singh et al. [12] whereas conservation of highly exploited medicinal plants of Vindhyam range (U.P.) studied by Singh et al. [13]. Conservation and cultivation of threatened and high valued medicinal plants in north East India carried out by Shankar and Rawat [14]. Review on a tuberous, endangered medicinal plant was done by Ade and Rai [15].

Materials and Methods

Underground plant parts like Bulb, Tuber, Rhizome, Corms were collected / removed from soil and carried out in Herbal Garden for their further regeneration. Underground plant parts were collected and shade dry was applied for their storage and for control on bud/ root initiation. When it gets favorable environmental condition it starts their growth.

Above parts were primarily initiated the origination of new buds/roots for this purpose these are put in cotton/jute clothes with proper water management. After initiation of the new buds of the underground parts were selected for further development. Each part of the underground parts used for this purpose selected by the presence of one, two buds and are carefully removed from the mother plants. These plant parts were deep in soil in moderate depth than cover by using soil mixing with sand and manure. Light irrigation applied in planted these plant parts.

As per need of the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants water, nutrient etc. were provided and protected the plant against diseases, insect pest etc. effect. Excess water removal facility was also carried out for protection of these structures against its decay.

Results and Discussion

Collected varied underground plant parts were stored in shade and dry places in summer season and during of starting of rains these are applied for development of new buds which are efficient to develop into new individuals as their parental ones.

Results of the current research is shown in Table 1 that includes each plants Common name, Botanical names, Family, Habit, Propagation and mode of multiplication. Table 2 is for distribution of the Medicinal and Aromatic plants according to their families individually. Maximum members of the family Liliaceae 13 plant species were propagated, secondly 09 species of the family Zingiberaceae was propagated by Rhizomes. Rests of the plants belonging to listed families were propagated 01- 04 plant species separately.

S. No. Common Name Botanical Name Family Habit Propagation Mode of Multi-
plication
1 Adarak/
Zinger
ZinziberofficinaleRose. Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
2 Air Potato Dioscoriabulbifera
Linn.
Dioscoriaceae Herb/
Climber
Tuber Poly Bags
3 AmaAdarak, Mango ginger Curcuma amada
Roxb.
Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
4 Banana Musa paradicicaLinn. Musaceae Herb Rhizome Field
5 Beet Beta vulgaris L.
Amaranthaceae Herb Seed Field
6 Black Turmeric Curcuma caesiaRoxb. Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
7 Blue ginger Alpiniagalanga
(L.) Willd.
Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
8 Canna CannaindicaLinn. Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
9 Canyon morning-glory Ipomoea barbatisepala A. Gray. Convolvulaceae Herb Tuber/Stem cutting Field
10 Cylindrical Snake Plant SensiveriacylindricaBojer. Agavaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
11 Easter lily Hippeastrumpuniceum (Lam.) Vossl. Amaryllidaceae Herb Bulb Field
12 Football lily Scadoxusmultiflorus
(Martyn) Raf.
Liliaceae Herb Bulb Field
13 Four o’ clock plant Mirabilis jalapaLinn. Nyctaginaceae Herb Seed/ Stem cutting/Tuber Poly Bags
14 Garlic Allium sativumLinn. Liliaceae Herb Bulb Poly Bags
15 Gulbacauli Hedychiumcoronarium
J. Koenig
Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Field
16 Haldi CurcumalongaLinn. Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
17 Kali Musli Curculigoorchioides
Gaerth.
Hypoxidaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
18 Kalihari, Glory Lili GloriosasupervaLinn. Liliaceae Herb Tuber Poly Bags
19 Keukand Costusspeciosus(J.Konig) Sm. Liliaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
20 Muli RaphanussativusL.
Brassicaceae
Herb Seed Field
21 Nagarmotha CyperusrotundusLinn. Cyperaceae Herb Rhizome Field
22 Onion Allium cepaLinn. Liliaceae Herb Bulb Poly Bags
23 Pink rain lily ZephyranthesroseaLindl.
Amaryllidaceae Herb Bulb Poly Bags
24 Rajnigandha Polyanthus tuberosaLinn. Amaryllidaceae Herb Tuber Poly Bags
25 Ram dauton Smilax Chinensis Linn. Smilacaceae Shrub Rhizome Field
26 SafedMusli ChlorophytumborivilianumSan. &Fer. Liliaceae Herb Bulb Field
27 SafedMusli ChlorophytumborivillionamSan.&Fer. Liliaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
28 Satavar Asparagus racemosus
Willd.
Liliaceae Herb/
Climber
Seed/
Tuber
Poly Bags
29 Sisal Hemp Agave sesalanaPerr. Agavaceae Shrub Rhizome Poly Bags
30 Small  Arbi Colocasiaesculenta(L) Schott Araceae Herb Corm Poly Bags
31 Snake Plant SensiveriatrifaciataPrain. Agavaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
32 Spider lily Crinum latifoliumLinn.                          Liliaceae Herb Bulb Field
33 Sudarshan Crinum latifolium Linn. Liliaceae Herb Bulb Poly Bags
34 Sudersan Linnumusitatissium Linn. Liliaceae Herb Bulb Poly Bags
35 Sweet flag Acoruscalamus Linn. Araceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
36 Sweet potato Ipomoea batatas Linn. Convolvulaceae Herb Tuber/Stem cutting Field
37 Tikhur Curcuma angustifolia. Zingiberaceae Herb Rhizome Poly Bags
38 Wild  Onion Allium canadenseLinn. Liliaceae Herb Bulb Poly Bags
39 Wild garlic Allium vinealeLinn. Liliaceae Herb Bulb Poly Bags
40 Wild Zinger Curcuma aromticaLinn. Zinziberaceae Herb Rhizome Field
41 Zimikand AmorphophallusdubiusLinn. Araceae Herb Corm Poly Bags
42 Zimikand Amorphophalluspaeoniifolius
(Dennst.) Nicolson
Araceae Herb Corm Field

Table 1: Underground medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) and their regeneration in herbal garden.

S. No. Family Herb Shrub Tree Total
1 Agavaceae +, + + - 3
2 Amaranthaceae + - - 1
3 Amaryllidaceae +, +,+ - - 3
4 Araceae +, +,+, + - - 4
5 Brassicaceae + - - 1
6 Convolvulaceae +, + - - 2
7 Cyperaceae + - - 1
8 Dioscoriaceae + - - 1
9 Hypoxidaceae + - - 1
10 Liliaceae +, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+ - - 13
11 Musaceae + - - 1
12 Nyctaginaceae + - - 1
13 Smilacaceae - + - 1
14 Zingiberaceae +, +,+, +,+, +,+, +,+ - - 9
TOTAL 42

Table 2: Family wise distribution of aromatic plants.

Used plant parts for propagation of different Medicinal and Aromatic plants were recorded in variable modes and numbers listed in Table 3. Rhizome is used to propagate 19 plant species, 11 species by Bulbs and rest modes were applied for different species of the Medicinal and Aromatic plants.

S. No. Mode of Multiplication Number
1 Bulb 11
2 Corm 3
3 Rhizome 19
4 Seed 2
5 Seed/Tuber 1
6 Seed/ Stem cutting/Tuber 1
7 Tuber/Stem cutting 2
8 Tuber 3
Total 42

Table 3: Multiplication methods of MAPs.

Table 4 is for diversity in habits of the introduced plant species. 38 species are regenerated for maximum herbs, 02 - 02 plant species were for Shrubs and Herb/climber during the tenure of the present study.

S. No. Habit Type Number of the Aromatic Plants
1 Herb 38
2 Shrub 02
3 Herb/Climber 02
Total 42

Table 4: Diversity in habit of the underground medicinal and aromatic plants.

Acknowledgements

The current work is supported by UGC New Delhi under Start up Grant for carrying out research in the field of/ Topic “Ex situ Conservation of important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) Resources from Chhattisgarh in Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University) Campus, Bilaspur (C.G.)” No. F. 20 – 17 (3)/2012 (BSR) - Dated 8 March 2013.

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