virus (CHIKV) infections predominantly occur in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. However, in 2013, CHIKV was reported in the Americas, including 2014 report of local transmission in the United States. At the time of writing this manuscript in December of 2014, the number of traveler-associated CHIKV cases in US states and territories stand at 1,911 cases from US, 32 in Puerto Rico, and 6 in US Virgin Islands. The number of locally-transmitted cases stands at 11 from the state of Florida (US), 3,402 in Puerto Rico, and 86 in US Virgin Islands, (http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/geo/united-states.html
With the rapid and continued spread of CHIKV outside and within the US, it is imperative to understand the pathogenesis of CHIKV and to develop a reliable non-invasive method of detection and/or diagnosis of CHIKV. Infection with CHIKV results in a spectrum of clinical symptoms, such as fever, encephalitis, neuropathy, and myelopathy [1
retention and paraparesis have also been associated with CHIKV infection [3
]. Compared to healthy controls, CHIKV-infected patients were shown to have high levels of proline, hydroxyproline, and mucopolysaccharides in their urine [4
Most but not all sites of CHIKV replication and CHIKV-associated disease have been identified [5
]. Infection with CHIKV is presumed to cause encephalitis, myelopathy and neuropathy and patients infected with CHIKV present with urinary symptoms [1
]. However, it is unknown whether the urinary tract organs and tissues such as kidney and bladder are infected with CHIKV. This current research was conducted to assess whether CHIKV infects urinary tract organs and tissues and if CHIKV could be detected in the urine of infected hosts.