Dennis D Taub, PhD.
Department of Veteran Affairs
VA Medical Center
Diseases are re-emerging and resurging in nature. Any infection, be it bacterial, viral or any other type has historical evidence of re-emergence once in a while. Awareness about the disease cases of ancient times and their detail information is important to combat any sudden future emergency situation caused by any lately re-emerging pathogen. Ancient remedies answered several important medical conditions which we are not able to even today. Therefore, investigating that aspect should be another eminent direction of modern science. Old preventive measures for disease conditions are still used in several cultures, emphasizing their eternal importance.
Ancient Diseases or paleopathology can be described as providing the historical perspective of a particular disease or diseases of the past for the contemporary understanding. This process furnishes the clinical and microscopic findings of a particular disease, with details like date and time of its emergence including symptoms and suggesting possible remedies in preventing and combating the disease effectively. This would be helpful in the diagnosis, characterization and therapy of various marked diseases
Journal of Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies focusses mainly but not limited to the areas such as Tuberculosis, Neuralgia, Plague, Typhoid fever, Leprosy, Meningitis, Trachoma, Smallpox, Pharyngitis, Dysentery, Ergotism, Influenza and inanition.
The Journal of Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, academic journal that aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas. Journal of Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies is one of the best open access journals of scholarly publishing and high quality manuscript submissions are welcome from the authors to receive high impact factor and to maintain high standard of the journal.
Ancient Disease journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality in peer review process. Review process is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies or outside experts.
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Lyme disease is an infectious disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis is caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type. The symptom of infection is an expanding area of redness, known as erythema migrans, that begins at the site of a tick bite and after a week a rash is developed which is typically neither itchy nor painful.
Cholera is an infection of the intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may be watery diarrhea vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be severe as to lead to electrolyte imbalance in the body. It is spread mostly by water and food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria.
Leishmaniasis or leishmaniosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and spread by the bite of certain types of sandflies. The diseases presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.
In ancient times the diseases were treated through medicines derived from natural source such as from plants, leaf, wood, roots, fruit extracts, acupuncture, animal parts and minerals. People were fed a diet rich in radish, garlic and onion, which modern researchers have found to be extremely rich in Raphanin, Allicin and Allistatin. These powerful natural antibiotics would certainly help to prevent outbreaks of disease.
Poliomyelitis is often called as polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. Symptoms include fever, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, neck stiffness and pains in the arms and legs. The affected people suffer muscle weakness resulting in an inability to move.
Chickenpox is also known as varicella and is a highly contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. The disease results in a skin rash that forms small and itchy blisters. It usually starts on the face, chest, and back and then spreads to the rest of the body.
Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Symptoms usually start two to five days after exposure in the form of sore throat and fever. In severe cases a grey or white patch develops in the throat. A form of diphtheria that involves the skin, eyes, or genitals also exists.
The word implies as nerve pain or pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves. There are many classifications among neuralgia like intercostal neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Sufferers have a constant pains with respect to the affected area such as migraine-like headache and pain in all three trigeminal nerve branches. This includes aching teeth, ear aches, mouth, feeling of fullness in sinuses, pain in face, thighs, hands and sometimes entire body.
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the organism enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. Plague can be spread through air, by direct contact, or by contaminated undercooked food or materials. The symptoms of plague varies with respect to its classifications such as bubonic plague in lymph nodes, septicemic plague in blood vessels, pneumonic plague in lungs etc.
Typhoid fever is a symptomatic bacterial infection caused due to the organism Salmonella typhi. Symptoms may vary as often there is a gradual onset of high fever for several days. Some people develop a skin rash with colored spots. Some people may carry the bacteria without being affected but still are able to spread the disease to others.
Leprosy is also known as Hansen's disease and is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Symptoms may include granulomas in respiratory tract, skin, and eyes this results to inability to feel pain and thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries may occur.
Trachoma, also called granular conjunctivitis and blinding trachoma is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection causes a roughening upon the inner surface of the eyelids which can lead to pain in the eyes, disrupter of the outer surface or the cornea in the eyes, and may possibly lead to blindness.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by two viruses namely Variola major and Variola minor. The disease was also known as "red plague". The last naturally occurring case of smallpox (Variola minor) was recorded on 26 October 1977.Infection in the skin it initially resulted in a characteristic maculopapular rash and, later as raised fluid-filled blisters.
Pharyngitis is known as the inflammation in the pharynx region of the throat. It is the most common cause of sore throat. Pharyngitis can either be chronic or acute and can result in very large tonsils that can restrict breathing. Pharyngitis can also be accompanied by a systemic infection.
Ergotism is said to be the effect of a long term ergot poisoning due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the a fungus named Claviceps purpurea that infects rye and other cereals, and also by ergoline-based drugs. The alkaloids can also be passed from mother to child through breastfeeding causing ergotism in infants.
Inanition can be described as an advanced state for lack of adequate nutrition, food, water, or a physiological inability to utilize them. It can also result from starvation. The word implies a spiritual emptiness or lack of purpose or will to live.
Pertussis also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious bacterial disease. Initially symptoms are similar to those of the common cold with a runny nose, fever and mild cough followed by weeks of severe coughing fits with high-pitched whoop sound or gasp occurring as the person breathes.
Measles also known as morbilli, rubeola, or red measles, is a infectious disease caused by the measles virus. Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, and red eyes, small white spots inside the mouth, known as Koplik's spots. A red flat rash starts usually on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body.
Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the Streptococcus pneumonia. Infection can result in pneumonia, infection of the blood (bacteremia/sepsis), bacterial meningitis including inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of fluid in the middle ear, swelling of the eardrum, earache. Non-bacteremic pneumonia of the lower respiratory tract spread to the blood stream.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection that causes muscle spasms. In the most common type the spasms begin in the jaw and spreads to the rest of the body. Spasms may be so severe that bone fractures may occur. Other symptoms include fever, sweating, headache, trouble swallowing, high blood pressure, and a fast heart rate.
Yellow fever also known as yellow jack, yellow plague, or bronze john, is an acute viral disease. Symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains, headaches, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin. The disease causing virus is spread by the bite of the female mosquito.
Gout also known as podagra is a medical condition characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis. Symptoms include red tender, hot and swollen joint. The base of the big toe is the most commonly affected. It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid crystallizes, and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
In ancient medical treatments also physicians maintained case reports in form of vast majority of the clay tablets and medical texts. One can appreciate thousands of tablets and approximately 800 complete medical texts attributable to the Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. The earliest of these texts, likely safeguarded in Babylonian temples, date back to 2000 B.C. Here, “Asu” (physician healers) are noted and discussed in detail.
As a reliable diagnosis is the basis not only of the study of case reports but also of the etiology and epidemiology of diseases in ancient populations, paleopathologists would be well-advised to employ histological analysis for their research, to avoid false diagnoses.
Several diseases are present in the archaeological record. The first exhaustive reference of human paleopathology evidence in skeletal tissue was helpfull In identifying pathologies, some disease that are found based on changes in bone include Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Syphilis.
Advances in treatment of ancient diseases include acute therapies such as complete pain relief, rehydration, and encouragement of diuresis, long-term management encompasses education of patients with regard to diet and fluid intake, control of unwanted intake, nutrient’s replacement, and treatment of any underlying infections or metabolic abnormality.
A home remedy is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain spices, vegetables, or other common items. Home remedies have medicinal properties that treat or cure the disease or ailment due to their very nature of cure: simple, no side effects, no chemicals, inexpensive, plus the ability of being able to cure yourself.
Several ancient diseases that even exist or of which case reports could be found are Gout, Yellow Fever, Tetanus, Pneumococcal disease, Measles, Pertussis, Diphtheria, Chickenpox, Poliomyelitis, Leishmaniasis, Cholera, Lyme disease, Inanition, Ergotism, Pharyngitis, Smallpox, Trachoma, Leprosy, Typhoid fever, Plague, Neuralgia etc.
Many of the natural remedies are familiar, as they are used today as homeopathic remedies such as pain relief – thyme and laxatives – dill, balsam apple, onions, parsley asthma – sesame, honey and milk, frankincense digestive aids – garlic, sandalwood, juniper, mint breathe freshener – mint, caraway chest pains – juniper, mustard seeds, aloe headaches – aloe, poppy seeds wound dressing – honey, a natural antibiotic anesthetic – poppy seeds (also used for insomnia) burns and skin diseases – aloe epilepsy – camphor vomiting – mustard seeds to induce it, mint to stop it.
Journal of Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies is organizing 3rd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics during September 01-03, 2015 Valencia, Spain with the theme of "A new era for Healthcare and Medicine" OMICS International organizes 1000+ conferences every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and publishes 700+ open access journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.